HONDURAS - A five star country
The Republic of Honduras is located in Central America and has as its coastline the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Fonseca.
It is surrounded by Guatemala on the northern border, Nicaragua to the south and El Salvador to the east, and has 820 km of coastline. The country is covered 80% by mountains and jungles and the coastlines are very narrow plains.
The country has an abundance of fresh water in the form of several important rivers, the most important is the Ulúa that passes through the Sula Valley through the Caribbean.
In addition, the country has several islands in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Fonseca, the largest being Roatan in the Caribbean.
Generals of Honduras
Official name: Republic of Honduras, its official name was established by decree number 3, on May 8, 1862 in Santa Rosa de Copán
Form of government: Presidential Republic with unicameral Parliament
Surface: 112,492 km2
Limits: Located in the center of the Central American region, it borders on the west with Guatemala (340 Kms) and El Salvador (356.5 Kms), to the north with the Sea Caribbean (650 Kms), to the east with Nicaragua (575 Kms) and to the south with the Ocean Pacific (65 Kms).
Official language: Spanish
Ethnic composition: According to data from the National Statistics Institute of Honduras of 2013 (latest data available), the indigenous population reached 717,618 inhabitants, representing 8.6% of the total, including indigenous and Afro-American peoples.
There are nine culturally differentiated peoples, identified as Maya-Chortíes, Lenca, Misquitos, Nahuas, Pech, Tolupanes, Tawahkas, Garifunas, and Afro-Americans. Religion: The majority of the population professes the Catholic religion (47%) The evangelical churches, especially from the United States and South America, are increasing their presence in the country (41% of the population).
Total population: 9,038,741 (2018)
Density: 81 inhabitants / km² (2018)
Capital: Tegucigalpa MDC: 1,508,906 inhabitants
Other cities: San Pedro Sula (754,000 inhabitants); Choloma (231,669); The Progress (188,366); La Ceiba (197,267); Danlí (195,916); Choluteca (152,519); Villanueva (149,977); Juticalpa (124,828); Comayagua (144,785); and Puerto Cortés (122,426). Nº Spanish residents: 3,485 (January 23, 2017)
Political Division of Honduras
Its political and administrative division consists of 18 departments, 298 municipalities , 3,731 villages and 30,591 hamlets .
- Rivers and flowing of Honduras |
- Geographic Regions of Honduras |
- Customs of Honduras |
- List of Municipalities of Honduras by Department
- Toncontín International Airport: Tegucigalpa
- Ramón Villeda Morales International Airport: San Pedro Sula
- Golosón International Airport: La Ceiba
- Juan Manuel Gálvez International Airport: Roatán, Bay Islands.
- Palmerola Airport - its opening is expected by the end of 2021.
History of Honduras
- Governing of Honduras |
- History of Customs in Honduras and the World |
- History of Psychology in Honduras
Climate of Honduras
The mountainous interior is much cooler than the coast. Tegucigalpa, at an altitude of 990 m., Has a temperate climate, with temperatures ranging between 25 and 14 ° C in January to 30 and 18 ° C in May. The coastal lands are much more humid and warm, and the plain of the Gulf of Fonseca is steamy.
December and January are the coolest months. Precipitation also varies according to the zones.
In Tegucigalpa, the rainy season normally runs from May to October, with a dry season from November to April that affects the entire country. In the months of September and October it rains almost continuously, and floods are very frequent.
As of November, the rhythm and frequency of rainfall across the country are drastically reduced, except on the north coast and Bay Islands, where the rains last several more weeks.
Living Culture: Ethnic groups of Honduras
Honduras is a multi-ethnic and multicultural country. According to data from the National Institute of Statistics of Honduras, by 2013 the indigenous population reached 717,618 inhabitants, representing 8.6% of the total, including indigenous and Afro-American peoples.
There are nine culturally differentiated peoples, identified as maya–chortíes, lencas, misquitos, nahuas, pech, tolupanes, tawahkas, garífunas, and afroantillanos. The official language is Spanish, spoken by almost the entire population.
In the Bay Islands the use of English is widespread for historical reasons. The majority of the population professes the Catholic religion (47%). The evangelical churches, especially from the United States and South America, are increasing their presence in the country (41% of the population).
Official Currency of Honduras
The official currency of Honduras is Lempira (L), its name is due to the hero and chief Lempira who fought against the Spanish conquest in 1537.
Bills are issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 Lempiras. Coins of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents are also used to a lesser extent.
The exchange rate is one US dollar 24.1980 lempiras and one euro 29.2796 lempiras (as of September 4, 2018).
To see the exchange rate, check the official site of the Central Bank of Honduras http: //www.bch.hn/
Although the lempira is the currency of current use it can also be traded in dollars, especially for major purchases.
Social Indicators in Honduras
The population of Honduras is approximately 9,038,741 inhabitants, with the population growth rate around 1.7%.
60.9% of the population lives below the poverty line and 38.4% in conditions of extreme poverty. 11.1% of the population is illiterate.
- Population density: 81 inhabitants per km2;
- Life expectancy at birth: 72 years for men, 77 for women
- Population growth: 1.74%;
- Population under 18: 42.76%
- Population over 65: 5%
- HDI (Numerical value / no. world order): 0.625 / 130 ° from 188 countries. From a comparative perspective, Honduras is the country with the worst HDI rating in Latin America;
- Birth rate: 20.88 / 1,000 inhabitants;
- Fertility rate: 2.33 children / woman.
It is a medium-low income country with a GDP per capita of US $ 2,465 and with a notable inequality in the distribution of wealth (Gini Index 0.51)
In June 2016, 60.9% of Honduran households are in poverty, since their income is below the cost of a basic consumption basket that includes food and other goods and services. Although poverty is more severe in the rural area, it also reaches more than half of the households in the urban area (59.4% urban and 62.9% rural).
Malnutrition has a high impact on children under 5 years: 23% of this population suffers from chronic malnutrition.
The majority of people affected by chronic food insecurity live in the western and southern regions of the country. In this region, access to land is very limited, food production is low, natural resources are degraded and water is contaminated.
Regarding access to drinking water, Honduras has a coverage of 91%, while sanitation coverage stands at 82.6%.
In general, inequality at the territorial, social, and political level becomes the main obstacle to the human development of Honduras.
In the particular case of inequality between men and women, this is reflected through the gender inequality index (0.48), which places Honduras at 10611. The main socio-economic indicators of ethnic and Afro-descendant groups are below of the national average.
Citizen insecurity has been a serious problem in Honduras. Violence rates reached their highest point in 2011, registering 7,104 violent deaths and raising the homicide rate to a rate of 86.5 homicides per one hundred thousand inhabitants (pccmh), which placed Honduras as the most violent country of the world in that year.
However, as of 2012 the homicide rate began to reduce, reaching 42.3 homicides per one hundred thousand inhabitants and a total of 3,791 homicides in 2017. Violence in the country can respond, among other causes, to the high levels of impunity (65.1%, according to the Global Impunity Index in 2017), easy access to weapons, the presence of gangs and the increasing pressure of drug trafficking. Young people between 15 and 44 years old, especially men, are the population group that suffers most rigorously from the effects of this violence.
Politics of Honduras
Honduras is a democratic and unitary Republic, of a presidential nature. The presidential terms are 4 years. The current Constitution dates from 1982, and has undergone numerous reforms in recent years.
Several articles of the Honduran Constitution of 1982 prohibited the re-election of the president, although a ruling of the Supreme Court of April 22, 2015 declared them inapplicable, opening the door to re-election.
The National Congress is composed of 128 deputies elected by proportional system by direct popular vote.
Honduras is divided into the 18 departments mentioned above, each with a governor appointed by the President. The departments are divided into 298 municipalities, in turn organized into towns and villages.