Nicaragua – Country Profile and General Information
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is a country located on the Central American isthmus, the capital and most populated political city is Managua. It is made up of fifteen departments and two autonomous regions: North and South Caribbean Coast, whose capitals are Puerto Cabezas and Bluefields, respectively.
It is located in the northern hemisphere, between the equatorial line and the Tropic of Cancer, approximately between 11 ° and 15 ° North latitude and with respect to the Greenwich meridian, between 83 ° and 88 ° West longitude.
The territory of Nicaragua has an approximate surface area of 130,494 km², bordered to the north by Honduras, to the south by Costa Rica, to the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Caribbean Sea. As for maritime limits, in the Pacific Ocean it borders El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica; while in the Caribbean Sea it borders Honduras, Colombia and Costa Rica.
The languages of the original indigenous peoples are recognized, such as Nicaraguan Creole English, Misquito, Sumu or Sumo, Garífuna and Rama.
Inhabited by pre-Columbian peoples, the Pacific Ocean coast and part of the central region of the current Nicaraguan territory was conquered by Spain in the 16th century, where the Province of Nicaragua was established, which belonged to the Spanish Empire (1502-1821), then the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823), the United Provinces of Central America (1823-1824), and the Federal Republic of Central America (1824–1838), emerged as an independent country in 1838, under the name of “Estado de Nicaragua ”and began to be called the Republic of Nicaragua, since 1854.
Nicaragua is a volcanic and tropical country, in its interior it also houses two great lakes: Xolotlán and Cocibolca or “Great Lake of Nicaragua”.